The service contains about 35 million publication abstracts from PubMed. In brief, everything that can be found by a PubMed search can also be found in our system. In addition, we included about 50k COVID 19 pre-prints from the ZB MED Preview Service.


Interaction Explanation
associated The general relation associated describes that two concepts are mentioned within the same sentence and connected via a verb/keyword.
administered Administered describes that some substance (Chemical, Drug, Excipient or Plant Family) is given in a dosage dorm (tablet, injection, etc.).
compares Compares describes that some concepts are compared.
decreases Decreases describes that some effect is lowered, e.g., a drug might lower the expression of some target. A search for decreases also includes searches for the inhibits relation.
induces Induces describes that some effect / expression is increased, e.g., a drug might increase the expression of a disease. Induces may be used to search for side effects.
interacts Interacts describe an interaction between concepts (drugs, targets, etc.). A search for interacts also includes searches for metabolises and inhibits.
inhibits Inhibits describes an inhibition of some target, e.g., a drug might inhibit some target.
metabolises Metabolises describes that a target is metabolised by some substance, e.g., a drug might be metabolised by a target.
method Method describes a relation that involves a method or lab method, e.g., a drug might be analysed via a method.
treats Treats describe that some disease or species is treated with a substance (Chemical, Drug, Excipient), e.g., a drug might prevent or lower the expression of some disease.

Synonyms for Interactions

The following table displays which regular expressions and synonyms we consider to represent an interaction. We also provide this list as a JSON file.

Interaction Explanation
associated General relation. Any predicate and those special words: associat*, contain, produce, convert, yield, isolate, generate, synthesize, grow, occures, evaluat*, augment, effect, develop*, affect, contribut*, involve, isa, same as, coexists with, process, part of, associate, play, limit, show, present, exhibit, find, form
administered Relation between Dosage Forms and any other concept. receiv*, administrat*
compares compar*, correlate*, correspond*
decreases reduc*, lower*, attenuat*, mediate, downregulat*, down-regulat*, down regulat*
induces stimulat*, increas*, potentiat*, enhanc*, activat*, lead, cause, side effect*, adverse, complication*, drug toxicit*, drug injur*, upregulat*, up regulat*, up-regulat*
interacts bind, interact*, target*, regulat*, block*
inhibits disrupt*, suppres*, inhibit*, disturb*
metabolises metabol*
method Relation between Methods and any other concept. method*
treats prevent*, use, improv*, promot*, sensiti*, aid, treat*, *therap*

Interaction Hierarchy

The following hierarchy displays how interactions are expanded in our system, e.g., associated is expanded to any other relation or interacts is expanded to interacts.

  • associated
    • administered
    • compares
    • decreases
      • inhibits
    • induces
    • interacts
      • inhibits
      • metabolises
    • treats
    • method